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Koine Greek

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Koine Greek was one of the common languages throughout the Ancient Near East in Biblical times, and is the language that the New Testament was written in and the language that the Old Testament was translated into in the Septuagint. Scholars generally agree that the 27 books which comprise the New Testament were originally written in Koine Greek, although some maintain Matthew may have originally been written in Aramaic. It was also the liturgical language of Eastern Christianity.


Proto GreekEdit

Main article: Proto Greek

Koine GreekEdit

Koine (Κοινη) is the Greek word for "common". For some time the Greek language of the New Testament confused many scholars. It was sufficiently different from Classical Greek that some hypothesized that it was a combination of Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic. Others attempted to explain it as a "Holy Ghost language", assuming that perhaps God created a special language just for the Bible. But studies of Greek papyri found in Egypt over the past 120 years have shown that the Greek of the New Testament manuscripts was the "common" (koine) language of the everyday people - the same as that used in the writing of wills, private letters, receipts, even shopping lists, etc.

Koine Greek alphabetEdit

If you do not see the following Greek characters properly, please view the image of this chart.
Title Lower Upper Transliteration Pronunciation
alpha α Α a father
beta β Β b beta
gamma γ Γ g gamma
delta δ Δ d delta
epsilon ε Ε e epsilon
zêta ζ Ζ z zêta
êta η Η ê or ē obey
thêta θ Θ th thêta
iota ι Ι i free
kappa κ Κ k kappa
lambda λ Λ l lambda
mu μ Μ m mu
nu ν Ν n nu
xi ξ Ξ ks axiom
omicron ο Ο o omicron
pi π Π p pi
rho ρ Ρ r rho
sigma σ / ς Σ s sigma
tau τ Τ t tau
upsilon υ Υ u sometimes y oops
phi φ Φ ph father
chi χ Χ ch chi
psi ψ Ψ ps oops
omega ω Ω ô or ō obey

Resources Edit

Scholars Edit

  • Eberhard Nestle, Kurt Aland, et al. Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece. 27th edition (NA27). American Bible Society, 2006. ISBN 159856174X

Students Edit

  • Kurt Aland, ed. The Greek New Testament: UBS 4th edition. American Bible Society, 1998. ISBN 3438051133
  • Barclay M. Newman, ed. The UBS Greek New Testament: A Reader's Edition. Hendrickson, 2007. ISBN 1598562851
  • Albert L. Lukaszewski, ed. A Reader's Greek New Testament. 2nd edition. Zondervan, 2007. ISBN 0310273781

Other Edit

  • C. John Collins and John Schwandt, eds. The English-Greek Reverse Interlinear New Testament: English Standard Version. Crossway, 2006. ISBN 158134628X
  • Alfred Marshall, The Interlinear NASB-NIV Parallel New Testament in Greek and English. Zondervan, 1993. ISBN 0310401704
  • Bruce Metzger, ed. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. United Bible Society, 2005. ISBN 1598561642

See also Edit

External linksEdit

Fonts Edit

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