Palestine is a region located in the Middle East. It borders the Mediterranean Sea and extends eastward past the Jordan River. It figures heavily into the history of the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The term "Palestine" is based on a Latin adaptation of the Greek word for "Philistine." Following Bar Kokhba's revolt in 135, the Roman Emperor Hadrian expelled most Jews from Judea, and renamed the Iudaea Province as Syria Palastina. The term "Palestine" was commonly used until the restoration of the state of Israel in 1947. The legacy of Hadrian's action continues today in the disputes between Palestinians and Israelis.
The State of Palestine is a territory claimed by Palestinians which is presently under the occupation of Israel. The name is a bit of a misnomer, because Palestine is not yet an official state. It is technically still part of Israel though it has its own government which is granted semi-autonomy by the Israelis.
The territory is non-contiguous. A small area known as the Gaza Strip borders Egypt to the South, The Mediterranean Sea to the West, and Israel proper to the North and East. The other part, known as the West Bank, is so-named because it is located on the west bank of the Jordan River, and is bordered on the other three sides by Israel proper.