The Catholic Church in Yemen is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. There are about 4,145 (0.02%) Roman Catholics residing in Yemen, with four parishes.

In 1998, three nuns who were affiliated with the Missionaries of Charity were killed, and in the same year, Yemen established diplomatic relations with Vatican City. On March 4, 2016, a Catholic home for elderly people in Aden was attacked by terrorists, slaughtering 16 people including four nuns of the Missionaries of Charity.